With an excitement born in my first childhood visit to a planetarium, I gazed up at a star-filled dome of the southern hemisphere’s early winter sky. The great square of Pegasus stood high in the north, while the red planet, Mars, coursed in Aquarius. Aquila the Eagle, with its eye the brilliant star Altair, bobbed in the spectral river of the Milky Way where it arched across the horizon.
The night sky is brilliant, mysterious, powerful, and a vital aspect of the daily experience.
Let’s start looking at some of man’s exploration and interwoven life with space throughout time.
Born in the darkness of interstellar space some 4.6 billion years ago, our Solar System emerged from a contracting molecular cloud of dust and gas.
Man’s quest and interwoven destiny with space is prevalent in the pyramids of Egypt. They are laid out in resemblance to the belt of Orion the Hunter. The monument is a sepulcher with a potent function which, for lack of appropriate terminology, can be said to be astrological. This is widely accepted consensus and is confirmed by the liturgy of the pyramid texts. The religion and rituals of the pyramid age were a sky religion, whereby the king became a star and his star soul became established or transferred to the southern stars of the Orion and Sirius and to the Northern Stars, which include the three circumpolar constellation of Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, and Draco.
A gigantic figure called the Owl Man, still visible after 2,000 years on the dry hillside near Nazca, Peru, points one harm to the earth, the other to heaven where the bright star Arcturus trails across the sky in May.
Symbol of the cosmos, the Great Kiua of Casa Rinconada in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reflects the concepts of Anasazi builders of the 11th century A.D. In shape, it duplicates the circular sky. Its main door faces celestial north, that fixed spot in the nighttime sky around which all stars seem to revolve. At summer solstice, sun rays entered the window to the right of the north door and struck a niche on the northeast wall, dramatically marking the northernmost journey of the sun.
A scared site, thought to have been once the estate of Inca King Pachacut, Machu Picchu, is a significant place to watch the sun rise on the June solstice, shortest day of the year there. The rays of the sun stream out like a fan, striking the ruins above. Seconds later the rays poured through a window in the east-facing wall of the temple, falling parallel to the cleft hewn in a sacred stone marking the day.
In an eagle’s view, Machu Picchu spreads magnificent cut-stone architecture across Peruvian heights. The spectacular city of the Inca includes the Torreon, an unusual curved wall temple. Its east-facing window direct the first rays of the sun rising over San Gabriel Peak on June 21—winter solstice in the northern hemisphere—parallel to a straight edge carved in a sacred stone.
One of Antiquity’s greatest cities, Teotihucan, in Mexico, was laid out in the first century A.D. on a grid that reflects celestial alignments of that time. The stupendous Pyramid of the Sun faced west to a sacred mountain, Cerro Colorado, and to the point on the horizon where the Pleiades Star Cluster set. From that line the city planners apparently ran a perpendicular northeast to another sacred mountain, Cerro Gordo, a major source of the city’s water. On this line laid out their main avenue now called the Street of the Dead, and on it built the Pyramid of the Moon.
Venus is linked to astronomically timed ritual warfare, sacrifice, and fertility. Setting Sun confronts Angry Clouds over the house of the Govenor at Uxmal, Mexico a busy Maya city a thousand years ago. Unlike most of the city, which aligns roughly north-south, this great residence faces southeast. It sights across a pyramid three miles distant to the horizon spot where Venus would have risen at its maximum southern excursion as the Morning Star about A.D. 900, when the structure was completed.
The importance of Venus to the ruler who constructed the palace is written on its face. He assumed the name and glyph of the Rain God Chac and ornamented the façade with more than 200 stone mosaic masks are common Maya decorative devices, but Ruler Chac added a special touch. The lower eyelid of the mask are carved with a glyph representing Venus.
The Star Ceiling is found in a rock shelter in Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. The Navajo believe the stars represent a hero who traveled to the heavens to receive ritual knowledge from the stars. Another version is symbols keep the rock ceiling from falling as the stars hold up the sky.
Are we alone in the universe? Do you think this is coincidental? What are the answers?
Driven by ravenous curiosity, blessed with immense wealth, Sir Joseph Banks orchestrated something that is in all of us, exploration of a new world, while collecting exotic forms of life in a three-year voyage around the world with Captain James Cook aboard the vessel Endeavor, ending in 1771.
Lofting manned missions to Mars at the same rate we currently launch the same shuttle, the United States today could populate Mars at a comparable rate to that at which the British colonized North America in the 1600’s.
In the summer of 1969, the Mariner 6 and the Mariner 7 missions to Mars were in full motion. The findings were quite a surprise. Their observations showed short wave radios, which bounce off the layers of ions, would work on Mars, and the 21st century colonists could communicate with their base camp while exploring the cratered Martian terrain. The Martian atmosphere was more chock-full of carbon dioxide than a bottle of seltzer. The implication: that tons and tons of rocket fuel could be synthesized out of Mar’s atmosphere, making traveling to and from Mars even easier than trips to the Moon. In the 1980s, Martian meteorites revealed that the planet’s soil contained lots of gypsum. Effectively, you could bake the gypsum, add Martian water and iron rich dust and thereby manufacture on Earth’s sibling planet, enough Portland cement to build an extraterrestrial Jamestown.
Throughout the centuries, from the time that the first early humans ventured out of Africa to the great voyages of the Age of Discovery, humankind has found more than ample reasons to venture into the unknown worlds. The impulse to explore “is always out there” says historian Robin Winks of Yale University, “it is part of the human condition.”
The skies have been the power of [man’s] science for a millennia, they are his hopes and dreams of tomorrow; nowhere is the vision of the first men who carved their thoughts on stone so fully displayed as in the tombs of Egypt.
We have peopled the universe with beings whose epic journeys affected the rhythms of their own lives. We are beings who wove human destinies into the fabric of eternity.
First comes our imaginations, it is written the universe is so immense it can stretch your mind, but the mind is powerful it can stretch the universe.
People have fantasized about living on the Moon, on Mars or in imaginary places of an un-earthly nature for ages. Today, more people than ever are captivated by the concept of space travel, a prospect that is suddenly not as far-fetched as it was only one or two generations ago. Many such individuals are motivated by the same factors as their counterparts in previous eras: the desire to explore the unknown, to seek new experiences, or to fulfill other intangible yearnings. The urge to explore and settle new frontiers appears to be a deep-rooted human characteristic, and the space program has always derived support from people who believe that this alone is sufficient justification for providing increasing numbers of people with access to space.
More general, people of all ages and in all fields have come to regard the space program as one of the greatest examples of the wonders that can be accomplished with the human mind and spirit, also fulfilling the urge to explore and settle new frontiers.
“I believe that there are moments in history when challenges occur of such compelling nature that to miss them is to miss the whole meaning of an epoch. Space is such a challenge,” James A Mitchner.
In reviewing these glimpses of history there seems to be one common factor that is obvious. It was the ability of mankind to pull together and accomplish goals thought to be unobtainable. That is why we invite you to become a founder in Space Pioneers to help fulfill and satisfy the human characteristic to explore and settle new frontiers.
As you review the following information, please remember it is not the antiquity of the paper that will be intriguing; it will be the use of the paper that will give it value.

We wish to express thanks and acknowledgement for the use of information, artwork, and text in the creation of this historical look at seeing where the future will end up taking all of us ….!
“NASA” for information provided to Space Pioneers. Also Thanks to the National Geographic magazine, issues: Vol. 177, No. 3 (March 1990); America’s Ancient Skywatchers Vol. 178, No. 2, (August 1990); Voyage of the Century Vol. 188, No. 6 (December 1995); Teotichuacan
We also want to thank Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert for their information and artwork obtained from their book entitled “The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids.”
SPACE – The limitless area in which all things exist and move.
PI-O-NEER – One that originates or helps open up a new line of thought or activity, 2: To open for others to follow; esp.: to settle new territories Published 1997